Student learning outcome statements clearly state the expected knowledge, skills, attitudes, competencies, and habits of mind that students are expected to acquire from an educational experience.

According to the National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA), transparent student learning outcomes statements are:

  • specific to institution-level and/or program-level
  • clearly expressed and understandable by multiple audiences
  • prominently posted or linked to multiple places across the website
  • updated regularly to reflect current outcomes
  • receptive to feedback or comments on the quality and utility of the information provided

Why Do We Use Student Learning Outcomes?

We seek to provide bright a holistic learning experience to all students, in and out of the classroom. Our commitment to quality learning outcomes helps to align faculty and students for the best educational experience.

An effective set of learning outcomes statements informs and guides both the instructor and the students.

For instructors, they inform:

  • the content of teaching
  • teaching strategies you will use
  • the sorts of learning activities/tasks you set for your students
  • appropriate assessment tasks
  • course evaluation

For students, student learning outcomes provide:

  • a solid framework to guide their studies and assist them in preparing for their assessment
  • a point of articulation with graduate attributes at course and/or university (i.e. generic) level

Including Student Learning Outcomes in Syllabi

At Ball State, all syllabi include four components (at minimum):

  1. course description
  2. course objectives
  3. course rationale
  4. course content, format, and bibliography

The course objectives, also known as student learning outcomes, should consistently appear on all primary syllabi and syllabi used by faculty on a semesterly basis.

Each syllabus should have about four to seven student learning outcomes.

How to Develop Student Learning Outcome Statements

Measurable student learning outcomes are specific, demonstrable characteristics such as knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and interests that allow us to evaluate the extent to which course goals have been met.

Learning outcome statements may be broken down into three main components:

  • an action verb that identifies the performance to be demonstrated
  • a learning statement that specifies what learning will be demonstrated in the performance
  • a broad statement of the criterion or standard for desired performance
  • The student learning outcome verb is an action word that identifies the performance to be demonstrated.
  • The student learning outcome verb denotes the expected level of learning.
  • Verbs can be aligned with pedagogical and/or philosophical commitments.

Verbs such as know, understand, learn, and appreciate are not specific or measurable and are discouraged.


  • The statement should describe the knowledge and abilities to be demonstrated (i.e., what students should know, value, or do).
    For example:
    • Identify and summarize the important feature of major periods in the history of western culture
    • Apply chemical concepts and principles to draw conclusions about chemical reactions
    • Demonstrate knowledge about the significance of current research in the field of psychology by writing a research paper
  • Suggested length is no more than 400 characters.


  • Can you envision a meaningful and manageable learning activity that will measure the student learning outcome?
  • Will the value of the assignment align with other course activities?
  • Can the student learning outcome and corresponding learning activity be understood by others in the discipline? Outside the discipline?
  • Does the outcome reflect a commitment to inclusivity and equity? According to NILOA, equity-minded assessment entails the following actions:
    • Check biases and ask reflective questions throughout the assessment process to address assumptions and positions of privilege.
    • Use multiple sources of evidence appropriate for the students being assessed and assessment effort.
    • Include student perspectives and take action based on perspectives.
    • Increase transparency in assessment results and actions taken.
    • Ensure collected data can be meaningfully disaggregated and interrogated.
    • Make evidence-based changes that address issues of equity that are context-specific.


The University of Central Florida (2008) developed a schema for S.M.A.R.T. student learning outcomes:


  • Define learning outcomes that are specific to your program. Include in clear and definite terms the expected abilities, knowledge, values, and attitudes a student who graduates from your program is expected to have.
  • Focus on intended outcomes that are critical to your program. When the data from the assessment process are known, these outcomes should create an opportunity to make improvements in the program that is being offered to your students.


  • The intended outcome should be one for which it is feasible to collect accurate and reliable data.
  • Consider your available resources (e.g., staff, technology, assessment support, institutional level surveys, etc.) in determining whether the collection of data for each student learning outcome is a reasonable expectation.
  • Include more than one measurement method that can be used to demonstrate that the students in a particular program have achieved the expected outcomes of that program.

Aggressive but Attainable

  • “Don’t let the perfect divert you from what is possible.” When defining the learning outcomes and setting targets, use targets that will move you in the direction of your vision, but do not try to “become perfect” all at once.
  • The following is a collection of questions that might help you to formulate and define aggressive but attainable outcomes for your program.
    • How have the students’ experiences in the program contributed to their abilities, knowledge, values, and attitudes? Ask:
      • Cognitive skills: What does the student know?
      • Performance skills: What does the student do?
      • Affective skills: What does the student care about?
    • What are the knowledge, abilities, values, and attitudes expected of graduates of the program?
    • What would the perfect program look like in terms of outcomes?
    • What would a good program look like in terms of outcomes?

Results-Oriented and Time-Bound

  • When defining the outcomes, it is important to describe where you would like to be within a specified time period (e.g., 10% improvement in exam scores within 1 year, 90% satisfaction rating for next year, 10% improvement in student communication performance within 2 years).
  • Determine what standards are expected from students in your program. For some learning outcomes, you may want 100% of graduates to achieve them. This expectation may be unrealistic for other outcomes.
  • Determine what proportion of your students achieve a specific level (e.g., 80% of graduates pass the written portion of the standardized test on the first attempt). If you have previously measured an outcome, it is helpful to use this as the baseline for setting a target for next year.

Examples of Course Goals, Objectives, and Outcome Statements

Course goals and objectives should feed into the student learning outcomes stated on the course syllabus.

Below are several examples that demonstrate course goals, objectives, and outcomes for various academic areas. For a detailed look at the process of refining course goals into objectives and outcomes, see our in-depth guide (PDF).



To develop knowledge, understanding, and skills related to the recognition and interpretation of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

To explain the different magma geochemistries derived from partial melting of the mantle in different tectonic regime.

Students will demonstrate how magma geochemistry relates to partial melting of the mantle by contrasting the outcomes of this process in different tectonic regimes through the critical analysis of specific case studies.



To explain the biochemical basis of drug design and development.

To demonstrate the application of molecular graphics to drug design.

Students will apply the principles underpinning the use of molecular graphics in the design of drugs to illustrate general and specific cases through a computer-based presentation.



To introduce students to modes of satiric writing in the eighteenth century.

To familiarize students with a number of substantive 18th century texts. Students will be trained in the close reading of language and its relation to literary form.

Students will analyze the relationship between the language of satire to literary form by the close examination of a selected number of 18th century texts in a written essay.



This course introduces senior engineering students to design of concrete components of structure and foundation and the integration of them into overall design structures.

The student is able to function in teams.

Functioning as a member of a team, the student will design and present a concrete structure which complies with engineering standards.

Reviewing Your Outcome Statements

Once student learning outcomes have been drafted for a course or program, use our checklist to review them (PDF).


If you would like to speak to someone about student learning outcomes, please contact Carole Kacius, Director of Assessment and Accreditation.

Contact the Director