At the Battle of the Wabash in 1791, Major General Arthur St. Clair and his American army were confronted by a large alliance of American Indians, led by Weyapiersenwah (Blue Jacket of the Shawnee) and Mishikinakwa (Little Turtle of the Miami). This force was comprised of seasoned, volunteer warriors from nine different American Indian tribes. The major tribes in the Battle of the Wabash were the Wyandots, Seneca, Cherokee, Ojibwe, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Shawnee, Delaware, and Miami. Together these nine tribes accounted for the estimated 1,400 warriors on the day of battle.

The American Indian alliance was ultimately able to surround, attack, and defeat the American force led by St. Clair in less than three hours. The American casualties at the Battle of the Wabash were high. An estimated 800 American officers, soldiers, and civilians were killed and another 350 were wounded. The American Indian alliance, while exact casualty numbers are unknown, it is estimated that their dead and wounded numbers were around a tenth of the American causalities, with some estimates as low as 30 warriors killed.

In December 1793, Major General Anthony Wayne built a fort at the site of St. Clair's defeat, which was named Fort Recovery. The same tribes that defeated St. Clair were part of an even larger American Indian tribal alliance that attacked the Fort on June 30 and July 1, 1794. In the Battle of Fort Recovery, the American forces held, and the American Indians retreated. This American Indian defeat at Fort Recovery and later at Fallen Timbers in August 1794, marked the end of the period of conflict known as the Northwest Indian War.

American Indian Tribal Websites

Listed below are the current federally recognized tribes whose tribal ancestors participated in the Battle of the Wabash in 1791 and the Battle of Fort Recovery in 1794. Each tribe is linked to their own website, where more information on both their history and today’s tribal citizens can be found.