At the Battle of the Wabash in 1791, St. Clair and his American army were confronted by a large alliance of Native Americans, led by Weyapiersenwa (Blue Jacket of the Shawnee) and Mishikinakwa (Little Turtle of the Miami). This force was comprised of seasoned, volunteer warriors from nine different Native American tribes and from other smaller Native American groups. The major tribes in the Battle of the Wabash were the Wyandots, Mingo, Cherokee, Ojibwe, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Shawnee, Delaware, and Miami. Together these nine tribes accounted for the estimated 1,400 warriors on the day of battle.

The Native American alliance was ultimately able to surround, attack, and defeat the American force led by St. Clair in less than three hours. The American casualties at the Battle of the Wabash were high. An estimated 800 American officers, soldiers, and civilians were killed and another 350 were wounded. The Native American alliance, while exact casualty numbers are unknown, it is estimated that their dead and wounded numbers were around a tenth of the American causalities, with some estimates as low as 30 warriors killed.

In December 1793, General Anthony Wayne built a fort at the site of St. Clair's defeat, which was named Fort Recovery. The same tribes that defeated St. Clair were part of an even larger Native American alliance that attacked the Fort on June 30 and July 1, 1794. In the Battle of Fort Recovery, the American forces held, and the Native Americans retreated. This Native American defeat at Fort Recovery and later at Fallen Timbers in August 1794, marked the end of the period of conflict known as the Northwest Indian War.

Native American Tribal Websites

Listed below are the current federally recognized tribes whose tribal ancestors participated in the Battle of the Wabash in 1791 and the Battle of Fort Recovery in 1794. Each tribe is linked to their own website, where more information on both their history and today’s tribal citizens can be found. 


Cherokee Nation    

United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma   

Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 


The Delaware Nation

Delaware Tribe of Indians 


The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma 


Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation

Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin   

Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation of Wisconsin 

Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Michigan 

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe 

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe - Bois Forte Band 

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe - Fond du Lac Band 

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe - Grand Portage Band 

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe - Leech Lake Band

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe - Mille Lacs Band 

Minnesota Chippewa Tribe - White Earth Band 

Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin 

Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians 

Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan 

Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians 

St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin 

Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota 


The Grand Traverse Band Ottawa and Chippewa Indians 

Little River Band of Ottawa Indians 

Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma 


Citizen Potawatomi Nation 

Forest County Potawatomi Community 

Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi 

Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians

Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation 


Absentee Shawnee Tribe 

Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma 

The Shawnee Tribe 


Wyandotte Nation