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Are you confounded by one of life’s perpetual mysteries? Do you have a burning question unrelated to your coursework? How many stars are in the sky? Why was Stonehenge built? What is the origin of the word “Hoosier?” ASK THE SEEKER! Read more about what The Seeker provides.

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What is Inner beauty?


Dear Beholder, 

A literal definition of inner beauty is not so hard to formulate. Random House Webster’s College Dictionary defines beauty as “the quality … that gives intense aesthetic pleasure or deep satisfaction to the mind or senses,” and inner as “situated within” and “not obvious; hidden or obscure” (1995). Inner beauty, therefore, is beauty that arises from within a person or thing, as opposed to from visible, outward characteristics.

When discussing the inner beauty of people, we often talk about admirable character traits, which might also be called virtues. The qualities that constitute virtue are somewhat hard to pin down, having changed over time and been shaped by the dispositions of various thinkers. Plato believed virtue to be an inner state sustained and enhanced by right and just actions (Slote, 2005). Aristotle described the ideal of the “great-souled man,” whose attributes included “a proper sense of his own worth … the desire to be honoured for his virtues by his equals (coupled with indifference to the opinion of inferiors) and in self-conscious dignity of demeanor (verging on pomposity to the modern eye)" (Taylor, 2005). Other ancients specifically identified temperance, justice, courage, and wisdom as important virtues (Slote, 2005) while later Christian philosophers elevated humility, patience, charity, and chastity (Blackburn, 2008).

Inner beauty, like all beauty, remains in the eye of the beholder, so it is perhaps up to you to fashion your own definition. If you wish to consult the wisdom of ancient or modern philosophers in your pursuit, you can find books by or about a specific philosopher by using his or her name as a search term in CardCat. For recent philosophical commentaries, you might try searching for “beauty” or “virtue” in an article database like Philosopher’s Index. And if you encounter unfamiliar terms or ideas, you can turn to a reference resource like The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy or the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy for explanation.


Blackburn, S. (2008). Virtue. In The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd Rev. Ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved from

Random House Webster's College Dictionary (1995). New York, NY: Random House. 

Slote, M. (2005). Virtues. In The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2nd Ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved from

Taylor, C.C.W. (2005). Great-souled man. In The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2nd Ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved from 

Answered on 2014-12-08 08:52:55


Is it true the Bermuda triangle's mysterious disappearances could be due to an experiment gone wrong of an artifcial Merkaba that was attempted? 


Dear Mystical Mariner, 

Like the last ruins of a collapsed civilization, your brief question represents something far larger: an immense body of religious esotericism and paranormal lore, encompassing not just Hebrew mysticism and tales of the Bermuda Triangle, but also the legendary lost civilization of Atlantis.

As described in the Book of Ezekiel, the merkaba was a heavenly chariot comprised of three types of angels, from which God spoke to the prophet (Ezek. 1:1-3:11, New Jerusalem Bible). Ancient Jews closely associated it with kabod, or the glory of God, (Schubert, 2006), and considered esoteric contemplation of either to be dangerous (M. Hagigah 2:1, trans. 1933).

What does this have to do with the Bermuda Triangle, let alone Atlantis? The Triangle has long been speculated to be the former site of Atlantis. A more recent addition to the lore, shared online, posits that Martians visited Atlantis in a synthetic merkaba, but the merkaba failed and resulted in a calamity that sent the civilization crashing into the sea.

Atlantis is usually described as a very ancient but technologically advanced civilization on a now-lost continent in the Atlantic. Plato gave the first known account of it, telling of a war between Atlantis and Athens. According to his sources Atlantis perished around 9,600 B.C., and here is a problem: there would be no Athens to fight until roughly 8,000 years later. Aristotle, a student of Plato’s, believed his teacher made up Atlantis to illustrate certain political ideas. Some modern writers however suggest Plato confused the date of the disaster (Bacon, 1995). 

As for the plausibility of the artificial merkaba, Ezekiel’s vision inspired a branch of ancient Jewish mysticism whose practitioners sought to take visionary journeys to Heaven. This, again, was considered very perilous (Greer, 2003). Insofar as such mediation could be considered “creating” a merkaba, the Seeker allows there is a long-standing religious basis for the belief and the potential for disaster. However, the Seeker is very skeptical that the culprits were Martians.

The relatively recent stories of the Bermuda Triangle might be the most easily refuted aspect of the question. The tales describe an area bounded by Miami, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico where ships and planes disappear without trace or explanation from clear skies and calm seas. But one study of the Triangle’s noted mysteries found much the opposite: that ships and planes rather disappeared under less than unexplainable circumstances, often during raging storms and in some cases hundreds of miles from the Triangle (Kusche, 1995). 

It is, however, difficult to conclusively prove a thing does not exist. The Seeker will therefore close by saying the creation of the Bermuda Triangle by a wrecked merkaba may not be impossible, but it is also not very likely. 


Bacon, E. (1995). Atlantis. In Man, myth & magic: The illustrated encyclopedia of mythology, religion and the unknown (pp. 156-159). New York: Marshall Cavendish.

Greer, J.M. (2003). Ma’aseh Merkabah. In The new encyclopedia of the occult (pp. 285). St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn.

Kusche, L. (1995). The Bermuda Triangle mystery solved. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. 

Schubert, K. (2006). Gnosticism, Jewish. In New Catholic Encyclopedia (pp. 261-267). Retrieved from

Answered on 2014-08-15 13:33:00


I read in a couple places that there’s a place in the Pacific Ocean like the Bermuda Triangle, and that’s what happened to the missing Malaysian airplane. Is there really such a place? Could the plane have crashed there?


Dear Tricky Triangles, 

There is indeed patch of sea off the eastern coast of China that, like the Bermuda Triangle in the Atlantic Ocean, has gained a reputation for strange disappearances. The location and dimensions of the Dragon’s Triangle or Devil’s Sea, as it is known – to some – vary depending on who is telling its tales, although most writers place it somewhere east of China and south of Japan in the Philippine Sea. Legends tell of rough weather and ships lost without a trace, with explanations ranging from UFOs to undersea kingdoms to magnetic anomalies. (Japan's Dragon's Triangle, 2003)

Larry Kusche, a librarian at Arizona State University, investigated the legend with a skeptical eye, corresponding with the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo, Japan’s Maritime Safety Agency, and a pair of Japanese newspapers to learn what they knew of the Devil’s Sea/Dragon’s Triangle. As it turned out, only one of the four had even heard of the place. The picture that emerged was of a geographic area considered dangerous by some, but no more so than several other nautical locations around Japan. Kusche also learned that the Kaiyo Maru – a research vessel that is perhaps the Triangle’s most noted “victim” – was in the area to study an undersea volcano, and is believed to have been sunk by either an eruption or a tidal wave; and that many other lost vessels were small fishing boats presumed to have succumbed to rough seas. (Kusche, 1995)

As for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, which vanished March 8 en route to Beijing from Kuala Lumpur, the last known location of the plane, derived from satellite data, was over the southern Indian Ocean (Branigan, 2014), where searchers in early April detected signals possibly consistent with those emitted by airplane flight recorders. ("Missing Malaysia plane: Search 'regains recorder signal,'" 2014) This location is hundreds of miles from the so-called Dragon’s Triangle, making increasingly unlikely that the plane was lost there, mystical properties or no. 


Branigan, T. (2014, March 24). " Missing flight MH370 lost in Southern Indian Ocean, says Malaysian PM." The Guardian. Retrieved from

Japan's Dragon's Triangle. (2003). In The Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained. Retrieved from

Kusche, L. (1995). The Bermuda Triangle Mystery Solved. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

"Missing Malaysia plane: Search 'regains recorder signal.'" (2014, April 9). Retrieved from

Answered on 2014-05-06 13:29:02

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