Why do most modern languages that stem from latin, particularly Spanish, have irregular verbs? Why do they not follow the rules of verb conjugation? How did they become common?
Sources are greatly appreciated!Answer:
Dear Vexed by Verbs,
When an assignment is due, you give your professor you work. He or she grades the work you gave. If you forget to turn in the assignment, you must explain why you forgot. You might go after class to have lunch, and later tell a friend what you had when you went. These are irregular verbs, cantankerous action words that refuse to follow patterns, and they exist in many languages. It might seem otherwise, but irregular verbs are not an ancient practical joke designed to infuriate foreign language students. Rather, they arose organically over centuries and some of them aren’t even very old.
Linguist Steven Pinker, author of Words and rules: The ingredients of language, wrote that words and grammar change as time passes, and irregular verbs can arise from these changes. Some resulted from good old corner-cutting, such as the elimination of repeated sounds within words, or the avoidance of creating repetition by adding a suffix. At other times, through a process known as “suppletion,” two verbs merged into one. An example is the English verb “go” and its past tense form, “went.” (Pinker, 1999)
Still other irregulars are vestiges of long-forgotten rules for conjugating verbs. Proto-Indo-European – an ancient language from which hundreds of others descended, including the Romance languages – had rules for forming past tense verbs by changing the words’ vowels. As speakers of the language spread throughout Europe and Asia and their descendants developed new languages, the rules did not survive. Eventually, children acquiring these languages likely stopped trying to understand why the verbs conjugated the way did, and just started memorizing the forms as a list. (Pinker, 1999) Much like foreign language students today!
Ye olde speakers of yore are not solely to blame for irregular verbs, mind you. Pinker notes some irregulars are fairly new, and until recently were nice, predictable regular verbs. It was only in the past few centuries that caught replaced catched and quit shoved aside quitted; and only about a hundred years ago snuck launched its ouster of sneaked. (1999)
The Seeker finds it plausible that some regular verbs are turning traitor as we speak, joining the unruly irregulars. As users of language, we are perhaps complicit. So bear in mind that centuries from now, students confounded by conjugations might point their fingers at tē.
Pinker, S. (1999). Words and rules: The ingredients of language. New York, NY: Basic Books.Answered on 2014-03-06 15:04:24
I read in a couple places that there’s a place in the Pacific Ocean like the Bermuda Triangle, and that’s what happened to the missing Malaysian airplane. Is there really such a place? Could the plane have crashed there?Answer:
Dear Tricky Triangles,
There is indeed patch of sea off the eastern coast of China that, like the Bermuda Triangle in the Atlantic Ocean, has gained a reputation for strange disappearances. The location and dimensions of the Dragon’s Triangle or Devil’s Sea, as it is known – to some – vary depending on who is telling its tales, although most writers place it somewhere east of China and south of Japan in the Philippine Sea. Legends tell of rough weather and ships lost without a trace, with explanations ranging from UFOs to undersea kingdoms to magnetic anomalies. (Japan's Dragon's Triangle, 2003)
Larry Kusche, a librarian at Arizona State University, investigated the legend with a skeptical eye, corresponding with the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo, Japan’s Maritime Safety Agency, and a pair of Japanese newspapers to learn what they knew of the Devil’s Sea/Dragon’s Triangle. As it turned out, only one of the four had even heard of the place. The picture that emerged was of a geographic area considered dangerous by some, but no more so than several other nautical locations around Japan. Kusche also learned that the Kaiyo Maru – a research vessel that is perhaps the Triangle’s most noted “victim” – was in the area to study an undersea volcano, and is believed to have been sunk by either an eruption or a tidal wave; and that many other lost vessels were small fishing boats presumed to have succumbed to rough seas. (Kusche, 1995)
As for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, which vanished March 8 en route to Beijing from Kuala Lumpur, the last known location of the plane, derived from satellite data, was over the southern Indian Ocean (Branigan, 2014), where searchers in early April detected signals possibly consistent with those emitted by airplane flight recorders. ("Missing Malaysia plane: Search 'regains recorder signal,'" 2014) This location is hundreds of miles from the so-called Dragon’s Triangle, making increasingly unlikely that the plane was lost there, mystical properties or no.
Branigan, T. (2014, March 24). " Missing flight MH370 lost in Southern Indian Ocean, says Malaysian PM." The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/24/mh370-lost-southern-indian-ocean-malaysian-pm
Japan's Dragon's Triangle. (2003). In The Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3406300192&v=2.1&u=munc80314&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=2bbb6ecc628733e236091a95b572b74f
Kusche, L. (1995). The Bermuda Triangle Mystery Solved. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
"Missing Malaysia plane: Search 'regains recorder signal.'" (2014, April 9). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-26950387Answered on 2014-05-06 13:29:02
Is it true the Bermuda triangle's mysterious disappearances could be due to an experiment gone wrong of an artifcial Merkaba that was attempted? Answer:
Dear Mystical Mariner,
Like the last ruins of a collapsed civilization, your brief question represents something far larger: an immense body of religious esotericism and paranormal lore, encompassing not just Hebrew mysticism and tales of the Bermuda Triangle, but also the legendary lost civilization of Atlantis.
As described in the Book of Ezekiel, the merkaba was a heavenly chariot comprised of three types of angels, from which God spoke to the prophet (Ezek. 1:1-3:11, New Jerusalem Bible). Ancient Jews closely associated it with kabod, or the glory of God, (Schubert, 2006), and considered esoteric contemplation of either to be dangerous (M. Hagigah 2:1, trans. 1933).
What does this have to do with the Bermuda Triangle, let alone Atlantis? The Triangle has long been speculated to be the former site of Atlantis. A more recent addition to the lore, shared online, posits that Martians visited Atlantis in a synthetic merkaba, but the merkaba failed and resulted in a calamity that sent the civilization crashing into the sea.
Atlantis is usually described as a very ancient but technologically advanced civilization on a now-lost continent in the Atlantic. Plato gave the first known account of it, telling of a war between Atlantis and Athens. According to his sources Atlantis perished around 9,600 B.C., and here is a problem: there would be no Athens to fight until roughly 8,000 years later. Aristotle, a student of Plato’s, believed his teacher made up Atlantis to illustrate certain political ideas. Some modern writers however suggest Plato confused the date of the disaster (Bacon, 1995).
As for the plausibility of the artificial merkaba, Ezekiel’s vision inspired a branch of ancient Jewish mysticism whose practitioners sought to take visionary journeys to Heaven. This, again, was considered very perilous (Greer, 2003). Insofar as such mediation could be considered “creating” a merkaba, the Seeker allows there is a long-standing religious basis for the belief and the potential for disaster. However, the Seeker is very skeptical that the culprits were Martians.
The relatively recent stories of the Bermuda Triangle might be the most easily refuted aspect of the question. The tales describe an area bounded by Miami, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico where ships and planes disappear without trace or explanation from clear skies and calm seas. But one study of the Triangle’s noted mysteries found much the opposite: that ships and planes rather disappeared under less than unexplainable circumstances, often during raging storms and in some cases hundreds of miles from the Triangle (Kusche, 1995).
It is, however, difficult to conclusively prove a thing does not exist. The Seeker will therefore close by saying the creation of the Bermuda Triangle by a wrecked merkaba may not be impossible, but it is also not very likely.
Bacon, E. (1995). Atlantis. In Man, myth & magic: The illustrated encyclopedia of mythology, religion and the unknown (pp. 156-159). New York: Marshall Cavendish.
Greer, J.M. (2003). Ma’aseh Merkabah. In The new encyclopedia of the occult (pp. 285). St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn.
Kusche, L. (1995). The Bermuda Triangle mystery solved. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Schubert, K. (2006). Gnosticism, Jewish. In New Catholic Encyclopedia (pp. 261-267). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3407704668&v=2.1&=munc80314&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=0e7fe82c773e80317a8e375ffb1dd6c4Answered on 2014-08-15 13:33:00