The following information provides insight into the research and publications of the faculty within the Fisher Institute of Health and Well-Being. Please contact the Institute or the faculty person involved in the publication directly if you have any questions.
Kelly E, Kaminsky LA, Harber M, Imboden M, Whaley M. Cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors: The Ball State Adult Fitness Program Longitudinal Lifestyle Study. The focus of this study was the association between the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) defined as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Although previous research has shown a relationship between MetSyn and CRF, most studies are based on less objective measures of CRF and different cardiometabolic risk factor thresholds from earlier guidelines Mayo Clin Proc Inn Qual Out. 2:155-164, 2018.
Kokkinos, P.K., Kaminsky, L.A., Arena, R., Zhang, J., Myers, J. A New Generalized Cycle Ergometry Equation for Predicting Maximal Oxygen Uptake: The Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND). To develop a clinically applicable equation derived from direct assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) to predict VO2max assessed indirectly during cycle ergometry. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 25:1077-1082, 2018.
Squires, RW, Kaminsky, LA, Porcari, JP., Ruff, Jeanne, E., Savage, Patrick, D., Williams, Mark, A. Progression of Exercise Training in Early Outpatient Cardiac Rehabilitation: An Official Statement from the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Aerobic and resistance exercise training is a cornerstone of early outpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and provides impressive benefits for patients. The components of the exercise prescription for patients with cardiovascular diseases are provided in guideline documents from several professional organizations and include frequency (how many sessions per week); intensity (how hard to exercise); time (duration of the exercise training session); type (modalities of exercise training); volume (the total amount or dose of exercise); and progression (the rate of increasing the dose of exercise). The least discussed, least appreciated, and most challenging component of the exercise prescription for CR health care professionals is the rate of progression of the dose of exercise. One reason for this observation is the heterogeneity of patients who participate in CR. All components of the exercise prescription should be developed specifically for each individual patient. This statement provides an overview of the principles of exercise prescription for patients in CR with special emphasis on the rate of progression. General recommendations for progression are given and patient case examples are provided to illustrate the principles of progression in exercise training. J Cardiopulm Rehab Prev. 38:139-146, 2018.
Mulugeta W, Xue H, Glick M, Min J, Noe MF, Wang Y. Burden of Mental Illness and Non-communicable Diseases and Risk Factors for Mental Illness Among Refugees in Buffalo, NY, 2004-2014. Limited is known about mental illness and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors among refugees. Longitudinal data collected on 1055 adults at a large refugee health center in Buffalo, NY, during 2004-2014 were used. Risk factors were assessed using multivariate regression models. Compared to those without mental illness, refugees with mental illness had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, tobacco use, obesity, and overweight/obesity rates (all P < 0.05). The overall mental illness prevalence among refugees was 16%, ranging from 6.9% among Asians to 43.9% among Cubans. Refugees who lived longer in the USA were more likely to carry psychiatric diagnoses. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018 May 21. doi: 10.1007/s40615-018-0498-6. [Epub ahead of print]
Chen HJ, Xue H, Liu S, Huang TTK, Wang YC, Wang Y. Obesity trend in the United States and economic intervention options to change it: A simulation study linking ecological epidemiology and system dynamics modeling. We studied the country-level dynamics and influences between population weight status and socio-economic distribution in the US and to project the potential impacts of socio-economic–based intervention options on obesity prevalence. Using the longitudinal data from the 2001–2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we built a system dynamics model (SDM) capturing the feedback loops between major factors. We projected rising overweight/obesity prevalence in the US in the future. Improving people's income from lower to middle-income group would help control the rising prevalence, while only creating jobs for the unemployed did not show such effect. Public Health. 2018;161:20-28.
- Wen X, Eiden RD, Justicia-Linde FE, Wang Y, Higgins ST, et al. A multicomponent behavioral intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy: a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design. Given serious consequences of maternal smoking, we aimed to develop and test a multicomponent behavioral intervention to enhance smoking cessation during pregnancy. Transl Behav Med. 2018 Apr 10. doi: 10.1093/tbm/iby027. [Epub ahead of print]
- Liu S, Triantis KP, Zhao L, Wang Y. Capturing multi-stage fuzzy uncertainties in hybrid system dynamics and agent-based models for enhancing policy implementation in health systems research. In this paper, we provide an innovative framework to capture multi-stage fuzzy uncertainties manifested among interacting heterogeneous agents (individuals) and intervention decisions that affect homogeneous agents (groups of individuals) in a hybrid model that combines an agent-based simulation model (ABM) and a system dynamics models (SDM). Having built the platform to incorporate high-dimension data in a hybrid ABM/SDM model, this paper demonstrates how one can obtain the state variable behaviors in the SDM and the corresponding values of linguistic variables in the ABM.PLoS One. 2018 Apr 25;13(4):e0194687.
- Min J, Wen X, Xue H, Wang Y. Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood body mass index trajectories, obesity and potential causes among 29,254 US children: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts. This study examined sex and ethnic specific childhood BMI growth trajectories and explore the potential causes of ethnic disparities using the cohorts ECLS-B and ECLS-K and mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions. Hispanic boys and African American girls had the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity and mean BMI after adiposity rebound. Racial/ethnic disparities were associated with household SES and family rules for children’s regular bedtime. The ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories and obesity are starting from adiposity rebound around age five and are explained by household SES and parenting factors. Int Obes. 2018. In press.
- Min J, Xue H, Wang Y. Association between household poverty dynamics and childhood obesity risk in the United States: A nationally representative study among 8,690 children and their parents. This study examined the pattern of income and its influence on children’s BMI and health behaviors and the risk of childhood overweight in the US using data from the cohort-ECLS-K and utilizing mixed models with fractional polynomial functions and estimating equation models. The recurrently poor children had the fastest BMI trajectory, highest overweight/obesity prevalence, and highest proportion of excessive SSB and FFC, and irregular exercise at 8th grade than others, and 1.5 times higher risk of overweight than those never poor (95% CI= 1.0-2.2). The persistently poor were the lowest BMI trajectory, but second highest in childhood obesity. Pediatr Obes. 2018. In press.
- de Souza e Silva CG, Kaminsky LA, Arena R, Christle J, Araujo CGS, Lima RM, Ashley EM, Myers J. A Reference Equation for Maximal Aerobic Power for Treadmill and Cycle Ergometer Exercise Testing: Analysis from the FRIEND Registry. Background Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a powerful predictor of health outcomes. Valid and portable reference values are integral to interpreting measured VO2max; however, available reference standards lack validation and are specific to exercise mode. This study was undertaken to develop and validate a single equation for normal standards for VO2max for the treadmill or cycle ergometer in men and women. Methods Healthy individuals ( N = 10,881; 67.8% men, 20-85 years) who performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on either a treadmill or a cycle ergometer were studied. Of these, 7617 and 3264 individuals were randomly selected for development and validation of the equation, respectively. A Brazilian sample (1619 individuals) constituted a second validation cohort. The prediction equation was determined using multiple regression analysis, and comparisons were made with the widely-used Wasserman and European equations. Results Age, sex, weight, height and exercise mode were significant predictors of VO2max. The regression equation was: VO2max (ml kg-1 min-1) = 45.2 - 0.35*Age - 10.9*Sex (male = 1; female = 2) - 0.15*Weight (pounds) + 0.68*Height (inches) - 0.46*Exercise Mode (treadmill = 1; bike = 2) ( R = 0.79, R2 = 0.62, standard error of the estimate = 6.6 ml kg-1 min-1). Percentage predicted VO2max for the US and Brazilian validation cohorts were 102.8% and 95.8%, respectively. The new equation performed better than traditional equations, particularly among women and individuals ≥60 years old. Conclusion A combined equation was developed for normal standards for VO2max for different exercise modes derived from a US national registry. The equation provided a lower average error between measured and predicted VO2max than traditional equations even when applied to an independent cohort. Additional studies are needed to determine its portability.Eur J Prev Cardiol. In press, 2018.
- Moneghetti KJ, Hock J, Kaminsky LA, Arena R, Haddad F, Wheeler M, Froelicher V, Ashley E, Myers J, Christle JW. Applying Current Normative Data to Prognosis in Heart Failure: The Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND) Percent of predicted peak VO2 (ppVO2) is considered a standard measure for establishing disease severity, however, there are known limitations to traditional normative values. This study sought to compare ppVO2 from the newly derived "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: a National Database" (FRIEND) registry equation to conventional prediction equations in a clinical cohort of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Intl J Cardiol. In press, 2018.
- Sabbini, A., Arena, R., Kaminsky, L.A., Myers, J., Phillips, SA, Peak blood pressure responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing: Reference Standards from FRIEND (Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database). Hypertension. The objective of this study is to expand on previous efforts in establishing normative standards of exercising blood pressure (BP) at maximal physical exertion derived from treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the United States. Four experienced laboratories in the United States with established quality control procedures contributed data from September 1, 1986, to February 1, 2015. A total of 2917 maximal (peak respiratory exchange ratio ≥1.00) treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing responses from apparently healthy men and women (aged 20-79 years) without cardiovascular disease were submitted to FRIEND (Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database). Percentiles of maximal systolic and diastolic BP were determined for each decade. Our results show a continued increase in peak systolic BP with age in both men and women to the sixth decade, followed by a plateau between the sixth and seventh decades. However, the trajectory of peak diastolic BP with age is different between men and women. Men showed an increase in peak systolic BP until the fifth decade, which plateaued by the seventh decade. In contrast, women showed a continued increase in peak diastolic BP across each decade. Existing reference data for exercising BP have not been updated for >20 years. Normative peak exercising BP values from FRIEND can be used to provide a more current representation of maximal BP during exercise testing in the US population. 71:229-236, 2018.
Min J, Yan AF, Wang VHC, Wang Y. Obesity, body image, and its impact on children's eating and exercise behaviors in China: A nationwide longitudinal study. Body image seems to mediate the association between obesity and health behaviors as well as weight control attempts. We examined the distribution of children's body image by demographic characteristics and their subsequent associations with eating, exercise, and weight change. Child body image and health behaviors from the China Health National Survey 2000–2011 were assessed at baseline and in follow-up for 6- to 17-year-old children during 2000–2011 using mixed models. Prev Med. 2018 Jan;106:101-106. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.10.024. Epub 2017 Oct 21. PMID: 29066373
- Wang V, Min J, Xue H, Xu F, Wang H, Wang Y. What factors may contribute to sex difference in childhood obesity prevalence in China? Objective: Previous studies in China showed large sex differences in childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) rates. However, limited research has examined the cause of these sex differences. The present study aimed to examine individual and parental/familial factors associated with sex differences in childhood OW/OB rates in China. Public Health Nutr. 2018 Feb 26:1-9.
- Min J, Kim G, Lim H, Carvajal N, Lloyd C, Wang Y. A kindergarten-based child health promotion program- the Adapted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission-X to improve physical fitness in South Korea. Global Health Promotion. 2018. March 1: 1757975918760517.